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Craig County OSU Cooperative Extension Service

Ag Newsletter August/September 2016

Craig County                                        Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service                              August/Sept  2016



                                                        210 W. Delaware, suite 107    918-256-7569

Ag News        




Craig County                                        Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service                                   Nov.   2015

           Ag Newsletter

We all know that the State of Oklahoma is going through some budget problems which trickle to the Oklahoma State Cooperative Extension Service. To help save on postage for our office I am asking each of you with the capability to receive your newsletter via email to please send me your email address to; walter.white@okstate.edu

I do realize not everyone has internet service and for this reason I will continue to mail out the Ag Newsletter to those who don’t have internet service and also to those  who prefer to receive a hard copy.

Comparing Prussic Acid and Nitrate Toxicity in Cattle Operations

Glenn Selk, Oklahoma State University Emeritus Extension Animal Scientist


As we head toward the “dog days of summer”, heat and drought may cause plants intended for hay or grazing to be stressed.  Summer annuals most often include the forage sorghums and when stressed they are capable of accumulating toxic levels of nitrates or “prussic acid”. 


Some confusion exists among cattle producers about the two major toxins that are deadly or costly because of production loss to cattle owners. Both prussic acid and nitrates become health concerns during heat and drought stress on hay or pasture crops. Below is a comparative list of the major differences that producers need to keep in mind about these two problems. Prussic acid and nitrates are capable of happening together or separately in any given drought-stressed situation.


Prussic Acid

Nitrate Toxicity


Caused by hydrocyanic acid

Caused by excess nitrate that leads to excess nitrite in rumen


Primarily in leaves

Primarily in stems


Kills very quickly

Kills in a few hours


Blood is bright cherry red

Blood is chocolate brown


Rarely, if ever, found in pearl millets

Often higher in stressed pearl millets


Most dissipates when hay is cut and completely cured

Stays in hay indefinitely


Most occurs in grazing cattle

Occurs in both grazing and hay feeding


Drought stress OR re-growth after frost

Drought stress and/or high fertility


Field testing may be available

Screen test available through OCES*


Accurate quantitative test requires fresh, moist sample

Quantitative testing can be done on fresh or dry forage


Laboratory test at OADDL+ (call ahead, sample must be properly handled)

Quantitative laboratory test through OCES* offices and OSU Soil, Water and Forage Testing Laboratory


 More info at OSU Fact Sheet PSS-2904

More info at OSU Fact Sheet PSS-2903



Treatment of sick animals for either toxin must be done immediately by veterinarian!

 Stockpiled Bermudagrass can reduce winter feed costs

Glenn Selk, Oklahoma State University Emeritus Extension Animal Scientist


 Harvested forage costs are a large part of the production costs associated with cow-calf enterprises.  A 16 year-old OSU trial had the objective to economically evaluate stockpiled Bermudagrass.  The research found that this practice can reduce cow-wintering costs.  Forage accumulation during the late summer and fall is variable from year to year depending on moisture, temperatures, date of first frost and fertility. 

The OSU research has found that 50 to 100 pounds per acre of actual nitrogen fertilizer applied in the late summer has produced 1000 – 2000 pounds of forage per acre.  In some ideal situations even more forage has been produced.   

Studies between 1997 and 2000 found stockpiled Bermudagrass protein concentrations were quite impressive, even after frost.  In November, the range of protein content of the standing forage was 13.1% to 15.2%.  The protein held up in December and ranged from 12.5% to 14.7% and declined to 10.9% to 11.6% in January.

 To make best use of the stockpiled forage, supplementation with 2 pounds of 14% to 25% protein feed beginning in early December is recommended.   Read about these studies in the 2001 OSU Animal Science Research Report.  Some information about the forage quality is reported in the 1999 OSU Animal Science Research Report.



Planning for the stockpiling of Bermuda must begin now.

The following is a list of recommendations for stockpiling Bermudagrass pastures for best results and reducing winter feed bills:

1. Remove existing forage by haying, clipping, or grazing by late August

2. Apply 50 to 100 pounds of actual nitrogen fertilizer per acre.

3. Defer grazing until at least late October or early November.

4. Control access to forage by rotational or strip grazing to cut waste and extend grazing.

5. If cool season forage is available for use in the winter, use the stockpiled Bermudagrass first.

6. Supplementation (2 pounds of 14 – 25% protein) should begin in early December.

7. Provide free-choice mineral (6%- 9% phosphorus and Vitamin A) with a trace-mineral package.


4-H Enrollment begins Sept. 1


By Trisha Gedon


Enrollment for the Oklahoma 4-H Youth Development Program is right around the corner. Oklahoma youth ages 5 years to 19 years old may enroll beginning Sept. 1, 2016.


For more than a century, the Oklahoma 4-H Youth Development program has provided programming opportunities that help youth develop life skills such as public speaking, leadership, citizenship and more.

 While 4-H has a rich history of agricultural-related programming, the organization continues to meet the ever-changing needs of its members and strives to offer high-quality programming in many different areas such as photography, companion animals, geology, entomology, health and fitness, science and technology, safety, robotics, shooting sports and wildlife, just to name a few.


There is a $20 per year 4-H Program Fee to join.  Families with three or more children enrolling will pay a $60 maximum fee. This fee will help ensure high-quality programming at the local, district and state levels for youth and volunteers. 

Beginning September 1, 2016, you may enroll for the 2016/2017 4-H year.



 Please go to www.4honline.com and enroll and/or update the member’s information. (Please download Firefox Mozilla or Google Chrome browser for best results).  Note any changes in address, phone numbers, T-shirt size, and other changing information such as release information. Thesechanges are the family’s responsibility.  Enrollment can be completed from your home computer as there is an option to pay the $20 fee online.  There will also be an online option to bring a check to the Craig County OSU Extension Office.  Once enrolled online and fees are received, members will be considered in good standing for the 2016/2017 year.  (September 1, 2016 through August 31, 2017).If you would like assistance in enrolling in the 4-H program, we will be hosting a Craig County 4-H Enrollment night at the Craig County Fairgrounds on Thursday, September 15th at 6:30 p.m.  We will have computers set up for families to use for enrollment.  OSU Extension staff and Craig County 4-H Leaders will be there to assist. 

4-H Clubs in Craig County include:

All-Stars 4-H (Jeanna Keller and Becky Lee)                                                                         Bluejacket Country Kids (Annette Stelle and Amber Epperson) – Bluejacket area                                                                                     Cowboy Junction (Kelly Lee)                                                                                       Equine Excellence (Corinne Bridgeman)                                                                             Golden Rocket (Cindy Harris) – Welch area Helping Hands & Handy Helpers (Lorraine Pitts and Mary Jo Knox) – Vinita area                                           Superior (Kim Woodward) – Vinita and Ketchum area

For more information about 4-H and the enrollment process, please contact Walter White or
Tari Lee, Craig County 4-H educators, at 918-256-7569 or (walter.white@okstate.edu, tari.lee@okstate.edu) Check out Craig County’s 4-H website on Facebook.


Craig County OSU

Cooperative Extension Service


Courthouse                                                                                                    C. W.  White

210 W. Delaware, Suite 107                                                                       Craig Co. Extension Ed

Vinita, OK. 74301                                                                                         Agriculture/4-H/ CED

Oklahoma State University, in compliance with Title VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Executive Order 11246 as amended, and Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972(Higher Education Act), the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and other federal and state laws and regulations, does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, genetic information, sex, age, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, disability, or status as a veteran, in any  of its policies, practices or procedures.

Issued in furtherance of cooperative Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Director of Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma. This publication is printed and issued by Oklahoma State University as authorized by the Vice President for Agriculture Programs and has been prepared and distributed at the cost of 0.01 cents per copy based on 250 copies. 06/16




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